Nahuel Moreno

(1924-1987)

"I do not think that the triumph of socialism is inevitable. I believe the result depends on the class struggle, in which we are immersed. And that, then, what is essential is to fight, to fight with rage to triumph. Because we can succeed. There is no God who has determined we cannot do it."

This page aims to disseminate the written of Nahuel Moreno, both in its political aspects and his works in history, logic, etc. It is driven by Izquierda Socialista (Socialist Left) of Argentina, which integrates the International Workers Unity (Fourth International).

Who was Nahuel Moreno?

The beginning

Nahuel Moreno (1924-1987) was one of the principal leaders of Latin American Trotskyism. Born in Argentina, he spent most of his life accompanying the workers and popular struggles and promoting the construction of socialist Leninist revolutionary parties. He began his political activity within the Argentine labour movement in 1943-44, with the foundation of the Marxist Workers Group (GOM). One of his first challenges was to respond to the new phenomenon of the emergence of Peronism and the massive shift of workers to it. In 1945 his small group had an outstanding performance in the meatworkers strike.

Internationalism

In 1948 he travelled to Europe to participate for the first time in a World Congress of the Fourth International, which was founded in 1938 by Leon Trotsky. From the late 1940s and early 1950s the Trotskyist movement began to go through a long process of crisis, divisions and disintegration (caused largely by the brutal persecution suffered by Stalinism, beginning with the death of Trotsky in 1940), which has not yet been overcome. Within the Trotskyist movement Moreno was shaping a current characterized by its permanent attachment to the worker and peasant struggles of the continent. From there he polemised numerous times with the positions of another Trotskyist leader, also very well known as an economist, the Belgian Ernest Mandel (of the "United Secretariat").

The builder

Under the leadership of Moreno numerous groups and parties in different countries stood out for their dynamism and their ongoing relationship with the processes of struggle and organization of workers. In Argentina, the party led by Moreno had several names (POR, PSRN, Palabra Obrera, PRT, PRT (La Verdad), PST (which was banned in 1976 by the dictatorship), MAS (founded in 1982). During the 1960s, while promoting the defence of the Cuban revolution, he consistently argued with the pro-guerrilla conceptions. Also in those years, in 1961, he directly accompanied the experience of peasant unionization and land seizures that led Hugo Blanco in the Peruvian valleys of Convention and Lares. During the 1970s, the PRT (La Verdad) first and then the PST, were built to defend the workers and socialist positions and polemising against the pro-guerrilla PRT–ERP (led by Mario Roberto Santucho), and the Montoneros, belonging to Peronism. In 1979, from his place of exile in Bogota he prompted the formation of the Simon Bolivar Brigade, which fought alongside the FSLN in the fight against Somoza. In 1982 he formed an international tendency, the IWL–FI (International Workers League – Fourth International), which quickly became the most dynamic of Latin American Trotskyism of those years. Upon his death in January 1987, there was a process of discussion and crisis in his current. Currently different groups still claim his legacy and trajectory.

Complete biography

Writtings by Nahuel Moreno

The Party

    We are publishing for the first time since 1944, this foundational document of the Marxist Workers Group (GOM). Written in 1943 by a young Nahuel Moreno, barely 19 years old. Polemising against Liborio Justo (Quebracho), Moreno proposes to move away from the circles and debates of intellectuals that predominated in Trotskyism. Its central axis is to connect with the workers' movement and its struggles. Thus, with a handful of young people, he began to take the first steps in the construction of a revolutionary party, following the guidance of Lenin in his book What is to be done?

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    Historical context of the hungarian revolution

      In 1956 the political revolution forecasted by Trotsky breaks out in Poland and, especially, Hungary. In this work, a young Nahuel Moreno analyses the broad features of both revolutions, the oppressive character of the Soviet Union, and he raises the slogan “Red Army leave the Eastern European Countries!”

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      Theses of Leeds

        Paper presented to the Congress of the International Committee of the Fourth International, held in Leeds, Great Britain. In this paper, Moreno deals with the crises open within the counter-revolutionary Stalinist apparatuses after the political revolution in Hungary and its crashing by the Red Army in 1956.

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        The permanent revolution in the postwar period

          In 1958, the Fourth International (International Committee) conference held in Leeds in 1958 adopted a draft resolution on the world situation prepared by Farrell Dobbs, one of the most important leaders of the Socialist Workers Party of the United States. Moreno, who was attending the conference, makes important criticisms of the document. On his return to Argentina, he writes this report to the Latin American Secretariat of Orthodox Trotskyism for its meeting in January 1959.

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          Peru: two strategies

            The peasant rebellion headed by Hugo Blanco and the polemic with putschism (1961-1963).

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            Two methods for the Latin American revolution

              Critical remarks to the works of Ernesto “Che” Guevara “The guerrilla warfare”, “Cuba: exceptional case or vanguard in the struggle against colonialism” and “Guerrilla warfare: a method”. Article published in the magazine Estrategia (second era), Buenos Aires, 1964.

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              Guevara: Hero and martyr of the permanent revolution

                Article published in La Verdad, organ of the PRT (Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores – Revolutionary Workers Party) of Argentina on the 23 October 1967, shortly after Guevara’s assassination

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                The Chinese and Indochinese Revolutions

                  While the October Revolution began the epoch of world socialist revolution, the Chinese Revolution definitively broke the imperialist equilibrium. It temporarily transferred the centre of the world revolution to the underdeveloped and colonial nations. It ended the isolation of the Soviet Union and thus posed an immediate possibility of a Federation of Eurasian Socialist States, a possible bridge to a World Federation of Socialist States. It forced Yankee Imperialism to develop a worldwide strategy to confront the colonial revolution. It indirectly produced two counter-revolutionary wars, the Korean and Indochinese. It has made the destruction of imperialism within its own borders, as the only way to avert a nuclear war, an urgent necessity on the world political agenda. Finally, it has posed the problem of problems, that of a unified strategy and organisation by which the revolutionaries of the entire planet may confront imperialism.

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                  Bolshevik or spontaneist morality

                    In 1969, Nahuel Moreno wrote the work that we reproduce here. The pamphlet was written responding to concrete problems that arose in the work of building the party in Argentina. Moreno was detained in Lima, Peru. Shortly after, he was acquitted, regained his freedom, and returned to Buenos Aires.

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                    Feudalism and Capitalism in the Colonisation of America

                      The Spanish, Portuguese, English, French and Dutch colonisation in America was essentially capitalist. Its objectives were capitalist and not feudal: organising production and discoveries to make prodigious profits and to place goods on the world market. They did not inaugurate a system of capitalist production because in America there was not an army of workers in the free market.

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                      The Militant: Interview with Nahuel Moreno

                        In 1972, The Militant, journal of the Socialist Workers Party of the United States, sent Fred Halstead as correspondent in Argentina for six weeks. His mandate was to report to the readers of The Militant, about the development of the revolutionary politics in Argentina, in particular on the policies and activities of the Argentine Socialist Party, soon to become Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores. As part of his brief, Halstead conducted this interview with Nahuel Moreno.

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                        Argentina and Bolivia, the balance sheet

                          Argentina and Bolivia: the Balance Sheet is a significant text that was forged in the heat of a radicalization of the class struggle in the political situation in Argentina and Latin America in the early 1970s and in the context of a deep and decisive theoretical and strategic debate within world Trotskyism. This paper reflects the revolutionary process in Argentina and Bolivia between 1968 and 1972, in the context of the polemic against guerrillaism promoted by Ernest Mandel worldwide and Roberto Santucho and Hugo Gonzalez Moscoso in Argentina and Bolivia respectively.

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                          The party and the revolution

                            The Party and the Revolution is one of the most important documents of Nahuel Moreno. In it is expressed the polemics with another Trotskyist leader, the Belgian Ernest Mandel (1924-1995). Mandel led since the early 1950s the current revisionist of Trotskyism (which identified itself for years as the “United Secretariat"). His written work is well known in the English language, first for his important papers on Marxist economics. In the early 1970s, when he wrote this book, Nahuel Moreno led the PST (Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores) of Argentina, one of the largest Trotskyist parties in the world. In his long journey he devoted much of his militant effort to the building of revolutionary socialist parties in his country and Latin America.

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                            Revolution and counter revolution in Portugal

                              The whole of the left movement and the revolutionary agreed that Portugal was, in 1974-75, one of the main revolutionary centres of the world, and without a doubt, the axis of the European revolution. There was an important debate within the Fourth International. In this work Moreno polemises with the leadership of the SWP of United States and with the majority of the United Secretary headed by Ernest Mandel on how to develop the Portuguese and colonial revolutions.

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                              Our differences over Key Issues

                                Summary of the oral intervention by Comrade Nahuel Moreno, made to a delegation from the leadership of the Socialist Workers Party (SWP) of the United States, formed by Comrades Joseph Hansen, Jack Barnes, Peter Camejo, Ed Shaw, Barry Sheppard, and Marie Alice Waters, before the National Convention of the SWP. In it, Moreno points out the differences with the SWP about the way forward for the Portuguese revolution that had started in april 1974.

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                                Memorandum for the reply of the PST(A) to the USec

                                  This material is an internal document of the Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores [Socialist Workers Party, PST] of Argentina. It was written by Nahuel Moreno during the controversy developed in the Fourth International in 1974 and 1975 around the slogans of defence of bourgeois democracy raised by the PST given the danger of a possible coup d’état against the constitutionally elected Peronist government.

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                                  Capitulation to “Eurocomunism”

                                    Letter to the United Secretariat alerting against the statements by Ernest Mandel to the magazine Topo Viejo capitulating to Eurocommnism.

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                                    Spain: With the Cortes, Against the Monarchy

                                      In early 1977 it was becoming clear in Spain that the post-Franco regime was to call for elections to the Cortes. The Political Bureau of the Liga Comunista Revolucionaria (Revolutionary Communist League, LCR) published on 14 February a special issue of their journal Combate with the title “For workers’ unity at the elections”. This document synthesised the electoral policy of the Spanish LCR. Moreno polemises here with the centrist, revisionist and yielding to Eurocommnism positions exposed by the LCR.

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                                      Angola: The black revolution underway

                                        In April of 1975, a popular revolution finished with the dictatorship of Caetano in Portugal. One of its immediate consequences was the end of its colonial rule in Africa. In the case of Angola, it was agreed that on 11 November 1975, the formal act of independence would take place, but in August a bloody civil war that lasted for more than 20 years broke out. The confrontation between the MPLA (supported by the USSR, Cuba and the communist parties) and FLNA-UNITA occurred when there had not yet been a withdrawal of the Portuguese colonial army. There were different positions in the Fourth International (Unified Secretariat). The differences remained and deepened when, following the retreat of the colonialists, the confrontation between the MPLA and the FLNA-UNITA, directly supported by South Africa and its troops, continued. Moreno debated both the leadership of the United States SWP and the Mandelist majority headed by the French LCR.

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                                        The Revolutionary Dictatorship of the Proletariat

                                          This polemic book against the resolution “The Dictatorship of the proletariat and socialist democracy” presented by the United Secretariat of the Fourth International, was finished in July 1978. The manuscript was shown to an important group of political friends, who returned to me with some modifications and suggestions. None of them brought substantial changes to the original text, with the exception of that made by an Italian friend, on the definition of the revolutionary dictatorship. His view was to add to the six points with which I had defined revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat one which defined its nature. I picked up this observation, as well as all the others.

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                                          Perspectives and Revolutionary Politics after the Victory of the Nicaraguan Revolution

                                            Report by Nahuel Moreno to the Central Committee of the Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores of Colombia —PST(C), held on 4 and 5 August 1979. In attendance were Kemel, from the leadership of the PST(C) and the Simon Bolívar Brigade (SBB), Javier Munera from the CC of the PST(C), who was wounded in combat in Nicaragua and other comrades who were in the front. Kemel and the other comrades also attended the Concentration for Victory, a rally for Nicaragua that took place in Bogota. Two or three days after the CC meeting, Kemel returned to Managua. And on the 16th of the same month, the SBB was expelled from Nicaragua.

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                                            The Transitional Program Today

                                              Nahuel Moreno wrote the theses we present today in order to serve as a basis to develop the program of the Fourth International – International Committee (CI-CI), organization created in 1980 as a merger of the current led by Nahuel Moreno — at that time called Bolshevik Faction (FB) — with the Committee for the Reconstruction of the Fourth International (CORCI) headed by Pierre Lambert. This first draft was never corrected or reworked, since these theses became a common text resulting from the discussion with Lambertism, this text was called Thesis Project for the Reorganisation (Reconstruction) of the Fourth International (Correspondencia Internacional –La Verdad, Bogota, January 1981). It was in the thesis we publish today that Moreno first exhibited in a comprehensive and systematic way the changes he thought should be made to the two pillars of the Trotskyist conception: The Theory of Permanent Revolution and The Transitional Program.

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                                              Oral report to the expanded CC of the Peruvian PST

                                                In 1980, great opportunities opened up to get the Peruvian party to achieve mass influence. At the same time there were great challenges of internal organisation. Nahuel Moreno gives details of the internal organisation of the Bolshevik party, without which there is no possibility of becoming a party of masses and leading the proletarian revolution.

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                                                The Mitterrand government, its perspectives and our policy

                                                  In 1981, after the electoral victory in France of the popular front lead by Francois Mitterrand and the support to it by the OCI(u) led by Pierre Lambert, the Fourth International (International Committee) was in a process of splitting. This article deals with the policies for the popular front left to us by Lenin and Trotsky, the policies of the OCI(u), what are the sectarian, opportunist, and Leninist-Trotskyist policies.

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                                                  Letter to the CC of the spanish POSI

                                                    This letter from Moreno to the Central Committee of the spanish POSI insist in develope a wide debate on OCI´s policy in France, against capitulation to Miterrand.

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                                                    Central America: Six countries, one nationality, one revolution

                                                      With ongoing revolutions in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, Nahuel Moreno elaborates several general considerations which allow framing the broad features of the Central American revolution, and from there to develop the transitional program.

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                                                      A new leadership emerges

                                                        Report by Nahuel Moreno to the General Council of the Fourth International (International Committee) at the end of May 1981, and published in Panorama Internacional, Year V, No 17, August 1981.

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                                                        Party Cadres’ School: Venezuela 1982

                                                          The current headed by Moreno (Bolshevik Faction) withdrew from the United Secretariat after the majority led by Ernest Mandel supported the repression to and expulsion of the Simon Bolivar Brigade by the Sandinista government in Nicaragua in August 1979. The OCRFI, Lambert’s current, repudiated the repression and was in solidarity with the Simon Bolivar Brigade. (You can see on this page a book on the SBB). Throughout 1980 a debate was developed on programmatic texts (“The Transitional Program Today", by Nahuel Moreno, also on this page), and in December 1981 the FI-IC was founded. From the moment the Social Democrat François Mitterrand become president of France in May 1981 increasing differences began to emerge, and the unification was quickly thwarted.

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                                                          Why does Fidel negotiate in secret with Reagan?

                                                            Moreno's text on secret negotiations between Fidel Castro and Ronald Reagan. It has with the text "Two policies for Cuba and the United Workers' annex.

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                                                            The OCI(u)’s Betrayal

                                                              In December 1980, Moreno's current unified with the Organising Committee for the Reconstruction of the Fourth International (OCRFI) directed by Pierre Lambert. The Bolshevik Faction had withdrawn from the Mandelist Unified Secretariat for the support of these (and the US SWP) for the repression and expulsion of the Simon Bolívar Brigade in August 1979. The unification was based on principled agreements on the Nicaraguan revolution and an extensive program. In May 1981 a popular front led by the Socialist and Communist Parties wins the elections. The OCI, the OCRFI’s party in France, capitulates and gives its support to the Popular Front led by François Mitterrand. This document polemises with the revisionist and opportunist positions of the OCI’s "theory of progressive camps".

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                                                              Opportunism, trotskyism, and the popular front governments

                                                                These theses were prepared by Nahuel Moreno, put to a vote and approved by the founding conference of the International Workers League - Fourth International (IWL–FI)) in 1982.

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                                                                End of unity with lambertism

                                                                  Four articles from 1982 presenting the final conclusions of the experience with Lambertism. “The existence of an Orthodox Trotskyist tendency is a fact”, “The centre of revisionism is the USec”, “Workers’ Front: the origin of a tactic”, and “Sui generis Bonapartism and popular-frontism”. They are translated from Correo Internacional #3, February 1982, Bogota, Colombia.

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                                                                  1982: The revolution begins

                                                                    In June 1982, General Bignone took over the government of Argentina, having gained the support of all the bourgeois parties in the country, primarily from the two major parties, the Peronist and the Radical. Without wanting to exaggerate, we believe that it has been the most important event so far this century. It was the final fall of the bloodiest and most totalitarian regime we have known in Argentina. The total collapse of the genocidal dictatorship established in March 1976, which kidnapped and murdered tens of thousands of people.

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                                                                    Argentina: A triumphant democratic revolution

                                                                      Report presented to the IEC of the IWL-FI, March 1983

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                                                                      Revolutions of the XX Century

                                                                        A quick summary prepared on the run by Nahuel Moreno in January 1984, for the study and discussion of the party’s cadre schools. Many of the issues raised there are still under research and discussion, and hence we want to highlight the nature of summary and draft this paper. To advance in the study and discussion of the process of the Brazilian revolution we are publishing a letter from Nahuel Moreno to the leadership of Alicerce, written shortly after the mass demonstrations of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro which caused the fall of the military dictatorship. About the revolutionary situation, we want to help the discussion by publishing some key quotes by Lenin and Trotsky.

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                                                                        Organizational Issues

                                                                          On 16 July, 1984 Comrade Nahuel Moreno was invited by the Socialist Youth to give a talk about organizational issues of the revolutionary party. The text that follows is the corrected transcription.

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                                                                          Party cadres' school: Argentina 1984

                                                                            In the southern hemisphere summer of 1984, Nahuel Moreno conducted a school for the cadres of the Movimiento al Socialismo [Movement Towards Socialism – MAS] 1 of Argentina, whose central theme was the theory of contemporary revolutions. This is the main content of the work presented here.

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                                                                            On the historical subjects

                                                                              A talk-debate with Andre Gunder Frank, September 1984

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                                                                              Historic materialism: elementary concepts

                                                                                This pamphlet is the transcription, corrected by Nahuel Moreno, on an introduction to Historical Materialism that began the party cadres school in the summer 1983–84.

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                                                                                Speeches in the second congress of the MAS

                                                                                  In March 1985 was held in Buenos Aires the second congress of the MAS. Nahuel Moreno was the informant on the international situation. We reproduce his report. He only managed to tell the delegates a brief first part as within minutes he felt ill and retired. The most comprehensive part was presented to the delegates in a recording. We also reproduce his brief speech arguing with Enrique Broquen, who had been linked to the beginning of the formation of a faction that existed in the congress and with which he had already debated in the international point.

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                                                                                  Speeches in the first congress of the IWL-FI

                                                                                    In March 1985, in Buenos Aires, the first world congress of the international organisation headed by Moreno was held, and at that time it was called the IWL-FI (founded in 1982 in Bogotá, Colombia). The three central themes to which Moreno spoke about — among others — were about the revolutionary world situation, the tactics of the revolutionary united front and the minimum program that could allow it to be put into practice.

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                                                                                    Discussions in the IEC of the IWL-FI

                                                                                      At the meeting of the International Executive Committee on 11 May 1985 were discussed important issues of the world situation and how to seize the opportunities presented. Topics include: Bolivia, the general strike and the insurrection; the situation in Spain; about Lutte Ouvrière; and discussion about Colombia.

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                                                                                      To be a Trotskyst today

                                                                                        In an interview conducted in August 1985 and first published in 1988 (Esbozo biográfico. Cuadernos de Correo Internacional), Moreno defined the meaning of being a Trotskyist.

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                                                                                        Theses on the Guerrilla

                                                                                          These theses were written as part of the debate was developed in 1986 within orthodox Trotskyism, with a sector of Colombian comrades who were for an approach to a trade union sector influenced by the ELN guerrilla, in the perspective of forming a common party. In its pages, it is found the conception of the current headed by Moreno, which, based on the teachings of Marx, Lenin, and Trotsky, rejects the guerrilla strategy and of individual terrorism, and proposes the construction of revolutionary workers’ parties with an influence of masses.

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                                                                                          Elementary political concepts

                                                                                            This paper intended to bring in a simple and easy manner to the whole of the militancy, particularly to the new litters, the central tools of political elaboration that Moreno had been developing and defending in his polemics within and without Trotskyism (in particular with Comrade Ernest Mandel).

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                                                                                            Conversations with Nahuel Moreno

                                                                                              Conversations was the last book published by Nahuel Moreno, before his death on January 25, 1987. Since 1986, this text has been circulating among new and old members of Trotskyism, and also has served as pleasant reading for many people curious about socialist ideas.

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                                                                                              Sandinism and the Nicaraguan Revolution

                                                                                                A few months before his death, Nahuel Moreno received a letter from one of the greatest Argentine intellectuals, the writer, dramatist, actor, and psychotherapist Eduardo Pavlovsky. Pavlovsky, who for fifteen years had been part of the current that Moreno founded, reflects very important concerns about the role of Sandinism and Castro in the Central American revolution. We think it is useful to make known that letter and the response that Moreno sent him, since it expresses important debates.

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                                                                                                Four tips by Lenin

                                                                                                  The article "Four tips by Lenin" was published in 1986 in Contraprensa, the magazine of the Socialist Youth of the MAS. In brief pages, Moreno contrasts the Leninist conceptions and practice with the monolithic and vertical bureaucratism characteristic of the communist parties.

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                                                                                                  Our experience with lambertism

                                                                                                    The split of the FI (IC) was anticipated by the divergences around another great fact of the world class struggle, the Polish revolution. And it was precipitated by a key political fact, the triumph of Mitterrand in France. The program and the policy on the face of his government originated an abyss, an opposition by the apex between our current and the one of Lambert. Finally, as Lambert prevented the democratic discussion of these differences, the total breakdown took place, which became absolutely irreversible when he added to his bureaucratic methods a despicable moral attack on an old leader who came from his own current.

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                                                                                                    Open letter to the PST(C) about A Luchar

                                                                                                      Nahuel Moreno wrote this letter before the Congress of the PST (C) which addressed a historical discussion, the most important since the founding of the party because they had to choose between two lines: one that tends to dissolve the party in A Luchar [To Fight], adopting its newspaper as the central instrument for our political activity, and one that proposes to strengthen the Trotskyist party more than ever, with its newspaper, its politics and its program.

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                                                                                                      Edited books

                                                                                                      (Only in spanish)

                                                                                                      El Partido y la Revolución (1973)

                                                                                                      Teoría, programa y política: polémicas con Ernest Mandel.

                                                                                                      Actualización del Programa de Transición (1980)

                                                                                                      41 tesis elaboradas por Nahuel Moreno a principios de los años 80.

                                                                                                      Polémica con el Che Guevara (1964)

                                                                                                      Incluye texto de Ernesto Guevara "Guerra de guerrillas: un método"

                                                                                                      Método de interpretación de la historia argentina (1975)

                                                                                                      Cuatro tesis sobre la colonización española y portugesa en América

                                                                                                      El golpe gorila de 1955

                                                                                                      Las posiciones del trotskismo

                                                                                                      Perú: dos estrategias(1961-63)

                                                                                                      La rebelión campesina encabezada por Hugo Blanco y la polémica con el putschismo

                                                                                                      Problemas de Organización (1984)

                                                                                                      Incluye El Partido (1943) y fragmentos del ¿Qué hacer? de Lenin

                                                                                                      De Illia a Onganía

                                                                                                      Textos de 1964, 65 y 66

                                                                                                      Conversaciones con Nahuel Moreno (1986)

                                                                                                      Entrevistas realizadas por Daniel Costa, Marcos Trogo y Raúl Tuny

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